As Japan has been forced to learn how to restore life to areas devastated by deliberate detonation of hostile atomic weapons, we can learn how to restore biological diversity and health to eco-systems destroyed by military industrial state misconduct.
1999 From APNAN: ASIA-PACIFIC NATURAL AGRICULTURE NETWORK
Dr. Teruo Higa developed Effective Micro-organisms (EM) for Kyusei Nature (Organic) Farming through the 1980’s. EM was developed to enhance soil quality, produce food that is safe, nutritious, sustainable, of high quality, and mutually beneficial for all. Groups of beneficial micro-organisms were cultured to improve soil conditions, suppress disease inducing microbes and improve crop yields. The Asia Pacific Natural Agriculture Network (APNAN) was formed in 1989 at an international conference in Thailand to promote research and education in EM technology and practices. EM stock solution includes a symbiotic blend of photo-synthetic and lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, actinomycetes and fermenting fungi. EM is a living solution which can be applied as a spray with diluted EM-1 stock solution, as a dry fertilizer EM-Bokashi, as an insect repellant EM-5 solution, as a more potent fermented plant extract EM-FPE. EM-1 is a yellow-brown liquid with pleasant odor and sweet-sour taste. The pH of EM-1 should be below 3.5. If it has a pH more than 4.0, or a bad smell and foul odor, the EM-1 has failed. It should be recycled. Original EM-1 is dormant and needs to be activated by adding water and fed molasses. Use EM diluted solution (0.1%) on crops and soil: 1 litre (1000 cc) of water, plus1 cc EM-1, plus1 cc Molasses or 1 g of any sugar, Leave solution for 2-24 hours then spray onto plants, soil or any organic matter.
EM-BOKASHI Dried Fermented Compost Starter Materials:
(In Japan) Amount (In Thailand) (In North America)Apply Bokashi at 200 grams per square meter on top soil, when enough organic matter has been applied. You can apply more, to a maximum of 1 kg per square meter when soil is poor, or has little natural organic matter. EM-5 is used to prevent disease and pest problems in crop plants. It is sprayed onto plants at a dilution of 1 in 500 to 1 in 1000, with water. EM-5 is carried by insects to places of food storage, where it contaminates stored food. Fermentation takes place in the food, due to EM-5, making it inedible for insects, increasing insectivore populations, thereby cutting harmful insect populations. Standard EM-5 ingredients are listed below. To make a more effective EM-5, for more persistent pests, add organic materials that are high in antioxidants, such as garlic, hot peppers, aloe, neem leaf, pruned green fruits, and grass. Blend some or all of these organic materials then, add to standard EM-5 mixture.
1. Rice bran 100 litres Rice bran Wheat bran 2. Oil Cake 25 litres Rice husk Corn meal 3. Fish meal 25 litres Chicken dung Fish meal 4. EM-1 150 cc EM-1 EM-1 5. Molasses #1 150 cc Molasses #1 Molasses #1 6. Water #2 15 litres Water #2 Water #2
#1 In place of molasses, any kind of sugar can be used. You can use raw cane sugar, fruit juice and waste water from a brewery or fruit processing plant. #2 The quantity of water is a guideline. The amount of water needed will depend on the moisture content of the materials used. The ideal quantity of water is that required to moisten the material, without drainage, about 30 to 40 %.
1. Mix well dried bran, corn and fish meals (grass clippings may be substituted). 2. Dissolve molasses in warm water (1:100). 3. Add 1 part EM into above molasses dilution. 4. Gradually pour EM mixture onto dry organic matter and mix well. Check moisture content for drainage of excess water. Moisture content should be 30-40%. Check it by squeezing a handful. It should clump and then crumble. 5. Put the mixture into a plastic garbage bag to ferment. Close the bag tightly to keep out any air. Place the bag in a garbage can, away from direct sunlight. 6. The fermenting period in summer is at least 3-4 days. In winter more than 7-8 days. Put the container in a warm location to hasten fermentation. The Bokashi is ready for use when it gives a sweet fermented smell. If it produces a sour and rotten smell, it is a failure. Recycle it as compost and try again. 7. Anaerobic Bokashi should be used soon after preparation. If storage is required spread it on a concrete floor, dry well in the shade, and then put into a plastic container. Seal it well to prevent rodent or other pest attacks.
1. Filtered or well water 600 cc 2. Molasses 100 cc 3. Natural Vinegar 100 cc 4. Whiskey or Distilled Alcohol (at 30-50%) 100 cc 5. EM-1 100 ccBlend all the ingredients in a large container. Ferment in sealed container at 20-35’C for a week. Store sweet smelling EM-5 in plastic containers, away from light.
1. Dissolve molasses in warm water. 2. Add vinegar and distilled spirit, followed by EM-1. 3. Pour mixed solution into a plastic container, not glass, to seal out oxygen. 4. Store the bottle in a warm place (20-35 °C), away from direct sunlight. 5. When fermentation expands the container, loosen cap to release gas.Shut tight again. Use a brewing container with airlock. EM-5 is ready for use when gas production stops. EM-5 should have a sweet smell of esters and alcohol. EM-5 should be stored in a cool dark cellar, with stable temperature. Don’t store in refrigerator, nor direct sunlight. EM-5 may be stored up to three months. Spray EM-5, diluted with water at 1/500 to 1/1000, to wet the crop. Start spraying after germination, before pests and diseases appear. Spray in the morning, and after heavy rains. Apply EM-5 regularly (weekly to daily as needed).
EM-FPE is a Fermented Plant Extract
EM-FPE includes organic acids, bioactive substances, minerals and useful substances from weeds. Items needed to make EM-FPE are a large plastic bucket or drum, a weight to press chopped weeds, black plastic bag, and wooden lid. Standard EM-FPE
INGREDIENTS (for a 20 litre bucket) are:
14 litres chopped fresh weeds (mugwort, artemisia, clover, grass and green fruit) 14 litres fresh filtered, well water (0.1% sea-water to supply useful minerals) 420 cc Molasses (3% by volume) 420 cc EM-1 (3% by volume)EM-F.P.E. should be stored in a dark cool place, which has a uniform temperature. Do not store in the refrigerator, or in direct sunlight. EM-F.P.E. should be used within one month after preparation. Apply to soil (1:1000) by watering cans, sprinkler or irrigation system. Spray EM-F.P.E. diluted solution (1:500-1:1000) to wet the crop. Spray after germination, before pests and diseases appear. Spray in morning and after heavy rains. Apply EM-F.P.E. regularly. Combining EM-F.P.E. and EM-5 is more effective in farm management:
1. Cut fresh weeds and chop up well (2-5 cm pieces). 2. Put chopped weeds into bucket. 3. Mix EM-1 and molasses into water and pour the solution into bucket. 4. Cover the top of bucket with black plastic bag and press down the lid on it. 5. Put weight on the lid. Take care to push out extra air from the bucket. 6. Store bucket in a warm place (20 — 35 °C), away from direct Sunlight. 7. Fermentation begins, gas is generated within 25 days, depending on temp. 8. Stir the weeds in the bucket regularly to release the gas. 9. The EM-F.P.E. is ready for use when pH of solution is below 3.5. Put EM-F.P.E. into plastic bottles after removing weeds by filtration with gauze or cloth.
KEY STRATEGIES FOR ANIMAL MANAGEMENT include preparing EDIBLE Bokashi and giving it to animals in their feed. EM-Bokashi improves microflora of intestines. As result, health of animals is improved and bad smells of dung is suppressed.
1. Suppresses the foul smell on livestock barns and septic tanks 2. Decreases numbers of flies and ticks. 3. Improves animal health 4. Decreases the stress of animals. 5. Improves meat quality. 6. Improves fecundity. 7. Improves animal dung quality. (Produces good fertilizer manure)Mix Bokashi (1-5%) into, or sprinkle on feed everyday. EM improves microflora in intestines of animals. As result, health of animals improve and bad smell of dung is suppressed. Put EM- 1 in the drinking water of animals (1:1000 - 1:5000). Harmful micro-organisms cause bad smells in barns and animal diseases. These produce harmful substances and toxins such as ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide. EM suppresses this increase of harmful micro-organisms. The environment of barns and animal hygiene are improved with regular EM treatment.
1. Add EM Bokashi into feed of animals. 2. Mix EM-1 into drinking water. 3. Spray EM-1 multiplied solution on to the livestock barn. 4. Sprinkle EM Bokashi on the bedding for animals. 5. Put EM-1 into septic tanks.
ANIMAL FEED BOKASHI
1. Rice bran 100 litres 2. Wheat bran or corn flour 100 litres 3. Molasses 200 cc 4. EM-1 200 cc 5. Water (moist, but no drainage) 20 - 30 litres
1. Mix rice bran and wheat or corn bran well. 2. Dissolve molasses in warm water (1:100). 3. Add EM-1 into above prepared molasses solution. 4. Gradually pour diluted EM mixture onto organic matter and mix well. The moisture content should be 30-40% with no drainage. Check it by squeezing a handful. It should remain clumped. On touching, it should crumble easily. 5. Put mixture into a plastic bag to keep out air. Close the bag tightly to maintain anaerobic condition. Store away from direct sunlight. 6. The fermenting period in summer is 3-4 days. In winter it is more than 7-8 days. In winter, put the container in a warm location to speed fermentation. Ideally, the temperature should be around 35-45 °C. If the temperature rises beyond 50 °C, mix the Bokashi to aerate it. Bokashi is ready for use when it gives a sweet fermented smell. If it produces a sour and rotten smell, it has failed. 7. The Bokashi should be used soon after preparation. If storage is required spread it on a concrete floor, dry well in the shade and then put into vinyl bag. Prevent rodent or other pest attacks.
Preparation of EM-1 Stock Spray Solution: Materials;
1. Well or filtered water 100 litres 2. Molasses 1 litre 3. EM-1 1 litreSpray on livestock barn by sprayer. (Spray onto floor, walls, ceiling and drain.) Or use as water for washing. Splashing EM solution on animals does not cause problems. However, in the winter do not spray (chill) animals with EM solutions. Spray 1-2 litres per square meter every 3-7 days. When bad smell is suppressed, the number of spray days can be decreased. In case of treating bedding, such as in cattle pens, apply EM solution on warm and sunny days. On cool rainy days, reduce humidity in barn sleeping quarters by using Dried EM Bedding Bokashi:
1. Blend molasses with warm water. 2. Pour mixed solution into a plastic bucket or drum, which can be shut tight. 3. Store bucket in warm place (20-35 °C), away from direct sunlight. It is ready for use 1-2 days later. It should be used within 3 days, after mixing.
1. Rice bran 100 litres 2. Sawdust 100 litres 3. Molasses 200 cc 4. EM-1 200 cc 5. Water 20 - 30 litresPreparation is the same for "EM Bokashi for animal feed"
Sprinkle 50g (about a handful of Bokashi) per square meter on bed every 3-7 days. Once bad smell has lessened, sprinkle at longer intervals (every 2 weeks to a month). Eating of sprinkled Bokashi from bed does not cause problems. EM fixed in animal manure utilizes excreta to actively suppress harmful micro-organisms. The bad smell of septic tanks are reduced. The sludge and scum in septic tanks are decreased. Putting EM into septic tanks increases these effects. Put EM-1 stock or EM-1 multiplied solution into septic tank (1% of total water in tank) every 1-2 weeks. Put 10 litres of EM-1 multiplied solution into a1 ton tank. EM-1 is useful for fish and prawn culture, because it improves water quality. Put EM-1 into the pond. (0.01% of total water in the pond) (1:10,000) every month. Please check the odor of water regularly. If the bad smell is not suppressed, put EM-1 at shorter intervals. Mixing "EM Bokashi for animals" into feed for fish (1-5% of feed) is very effective in raising productivity of fish farms. EM products are alive. Thus, EM is completely different from agrochemicals or chemical fertilizers. EM does not work when applied in the same way as chemical fertilizers or agrochemicals. It is important to note that EM increases populations of beneficial microbes in soil. It is important to use good quality water when watering crops, diluting EM-1, preparing Bokashi and EM-5. Using polluted water (high BOD, Low DO) causes infection of pests and diseases, reducing yields and crop quality. If you can not get good quality water, please filter it by charcoal or EM ceramics. It is desirable to use diluted EM-1 solutions within 3 days. EM-1 may be stored up to 6 months in a closed container, in a cool and dark place, (Do not store in refrigerator). Check smell when in doubt. EM-1 always has a sweet and sour smell. If smell is foul, do not use it. After the cap of bottle is opened and air comes in, a white membrane may be observed on the surface of EM-1. This is yeast and does not represent spoilage.
CROP DEBRIS AND MANURE BASED BOKASHI FERTILIZER:
1. Crop debris 200 kg (preferably chopped) 2. Weed straw 50 kg 3. Bran 5 kg 4. Chicken dung 10 kg 5. EM-1, Molasses and water 1:1:100 liquidsPREPARATION OF EM-1 SECONDARY STOCK SOLUTION.
1. Dissolve EM-1 and molasses in the water (1:1:100). 2. Soak a part of crop straw in diluted EM-1 solution. Drain the straw and place on ground. Tread them well to remove air, and heap to a height of 30cm. 3. Soak a part of weeds in diluted EM-1 solution and put them on the rice straw. Tread them to remove air, and heap to a height of 10 cm. 4. Mix rice bran and chicken dung, and sprinkle it on surface of weeds to a1 cm thickness. Mix with fork. 5. Repeat 1 to 4. till the height of heap becomes 1-1.5m. 6. Cover the top by gunny bags, and then by vinyl sheet to obtain anaerobic conditions and prevents infiltration of rainwater. 7. When temperature goes down after fermentation, turn it and leave 3-7days. Thereafter, it is ready for use. (White mold will be observed.)
1. Manure of animals 2 parts dry 2. Rice bran 1 part dry 3. Rice husk or fire ash 1 part dry 4. EM-1, Molasses and Water 1:1:100 liquids
1. Mix dung, rice bran and husk/ash well 2. Dissolve EM-1 and molasses in the water (1:1:100) 3. Spray the EM-1 diluted solution on the dry ingredients with a watering can. 4. The moisture content should be 30-40%. 5. Heap flat on floor to a height of about 15-20cm. Cover with gunny bag. 6. During fermentation the temperature should be kept around 35-45 °C. Thus please check temperature regularly using a normal thermometer. If the temperature rises beyond 50°C, mix the Bokashi well to aerate it. 7. Bokashi is ready for use when it gives a sweet fermented smell and white mold is observed. If it has a sour and rotten smell, it has failed. Recycle it.
24 HOUR COMPOST Materials
1. Any kinds of straw or grass 10 parts (Dried and chopped) 2. Bokashi 1 part 3. Rice or wheat bran 1 part 4. EM-1 Molasses and water 1:1:100
1. Dissolve EM-1 and molasses in the water (1:1:100). 2. Soak rice straw in the above EM-1 diluted solution. 3. Mix wet straws with Bokashi and rice bran. 4. Put it on a floor to a height of 15-20cm height, and cover it with gunny bag. 5. Turn it over after 18 hours and continue to ferment for a further 6 hours. It is ready for application in the farm. If it is hot spread and uncover it.
BOKASHI ENHANCED SOIL FOR RAISING SEEDLINGS
1. Soil 20 parts 2. Bokashi 1 part 3. Rice husk or fire ash 1 part 4. EM-1, Molasses and water 1:1:100
1. Mix soil, Bokashi, and rice husk charcoal together. 2. Dissolve EM-1 and molasses in water (1:1:100), and sprinkle the solution on the above mixture while mixing it. The moisture content should be about 30%. 3. Cover it with a gunny bag and vinyl sheet. 4. Turn it several times to prevent the temperature rising above 50 °C. 5. Leave the soil for 3 weeks-covered with a vinyl sheet to avoid drying out. 6. It is ready for use when it gives a sweet fermented smell and white mold is observed. If it has a sour and rotten smell, it is failure. Use this soil when you raise seedlings of vegetable and fruit.
To extend EM-1 stock solution, you can multiply EM-1 stock solution. This secondary EM-1 stock solution can be used instead of original EM-1 stock solution. However, this multiplied EM-1 secondary stock solution is inferior to original EM-1 stock solution in quality. Storage period of EM-1 secondary stock solution is thus shorter than the original EM-1 stock solution. Prepare with:
1. Water 20 litres (pure water without chlorine.) 2. EM-1 1 litre 3. Molasses 1 litre (or 1 kg of brown sugar)It is desirable to use secondary solution, as soon as possible. It can be stored for 1 week under air tight and shady condition. Do not multiply a third EM-1 stock solution from secondary EM-1 stock solution, because it’s difficult to prevent contamination. The balance of micro-organisms is changed, and efficacy is lost.
1. Mix EM-1 and Molasses well in the water. 2. Pour mixture into clean plastic container or drum, which can be shut tightly, and store at a warm ambient temperature (between 30 — 38’C is best). 3. After 3-10 days, when pH is below 3.5, it is ready for use.
SOIL CLASSIFICATION BASED ON MICROBIAL ACTIVITY
The percentage of Fusarium in all fungi is high (more than 15 - 20%) in this soil. When raw organic matter containing high nitrogen is applied, this soil produces a foul odor. Maggots develop in the soil together with many harmful insects. Pest and disease infestation is high with significant damage to the crops. Therefore, applying raw organic matter is harmful for crops in this soil. Application of raw organic matter hardens the soil. The soil physical conditions deteriorate. In case of rice fields, gas is generated. Application of high quantities of chemical fertilizer and/or agricultural chemicals leads to the development of this type of soil.
Micro-organisms, which produce antibiotic substances, exist in this soil. Thus, soil borne diseases do not develop easily. As Micro-organisms such as Penicillium, Tricoderma, Streptamyces are active; the percentage of Fusarium in all fungi is low (less than 5%) in this soil. When raw organic matter containing high nitrogen is applied to such soil, foul odors do not develop. The soil has the fresh sweet smell of mountain soil after decomposition. Soil aggregation and permeability are improved. On cultivation, pest and disease infestation is very low, but the yield is not so good. If this soil links up with a "Synthetic soil", productivity is enhanced.
This soil primarily contains zymogenic micro-organisms such as lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. When raw organic matter containing high nitrogen is applied, this soil develops an aromatic fermented smell. The populations of fermentable fungi such as Aspergillus and Rhizopus are increased. The percentage of Fusarium in all fungi is low (less than 5%) in this soil. The water-stable soil aggregate is high, and the soil becomes soft. Thus the solubility of inorganic nutrients enhances. The presence of amino acid, sugars, vitamins and other bioactive substances increase in this soil, thereby promoting crop growth.
This soil contains micro-organisms such as photosynthetic, nitrogen fixing bacteria. Under stable soil moisture conditions, the soil quality is enhanced by addition of small volume of organic matter. The percentage of Fusarium in all fungi is low in this soil. This soil often links up with a "disease suppressive soil"
Balanced Zymogenic-Synthetic Soil
When "Zymogenic-soil" and "Synthetic soil" are linked, they becomes ideal soils for crop production. Such soil is termed "Zymogenic-Synthetic soil".
EM Stock Solution is Available from:
1. EM Technologies, Inc. 1802 W. Grant Road, Suite 122, Tucson, Arizona 85745 USA, Tel: (800) 461-5296, (520) 629-9301, Fax: (520) 629-9039, E-mail: Website: http://www.emtech.org or: http://www.agriton.nl/higa.html
2. BIO-REMediation Environmental Services: 2866 Upland Crescent, Abbotsford, BC, Canada, V2T-2E9, Tel: (604) 852-8930, Fax: 852-5724, Cel: 866-8930, E-mail: Crystalclearone@aol.com Website: http://www.members.tripod.com/~lathamp
From APNAN: Asia Pacific Natural Agriculture Network and EM: Effective Micro-organisms
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